By John Daintith
This best-selling dictionary includes over 9,000 entries on all elements of technology and offers entire assurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices disguise the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant category. New positive factors contain digital thumb tags for simple reference, accelerated components together with astronomy and earth technological know-how and extra positive aspects on key subject matters comparable to the sunlight process and Genetically transformed Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of top scientists and chronologies of particular matters, together with plastics, electronics and mobile biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice creation for college students and non-scientists alike.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Science, 5th Edition (Oxford Paperback Reference)
The element was discovered by G. T. Seaborg and associates in 1945, who obtained it by bombarding uranium–238 with alpha particles. Ames test (Salmonella mutagenesis test) A test to determine the effects of a chemical on the rate of mutation in bacterial cells, and hence its likely potential for causing cancer in other organisms, including humans. Devised by US biologist Bruce Ames (1928– ), it is widely used in 32 screening chemicals occurring in the environment for possible carcinogenic activity.
See also imines. amine salts Salts similar to ammonium salts in which the hydrogen atoms attached to the nitrogen are replaced by one or more organic groups. Amines readily form salts by reaction with acids, gaining a proton to form a positive ammonium ion, They are named as if they were substituted derivatives of ammonium compounds; for example, dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH) will react with hydrogen chloride to give dimethylammonium chloride, which is an ionic compound [(CH3)2NH2]+Cl–. When the amine has a common nonsystematic name the sufÜx -ium can be used; for example, phenylamine (aniline) would give [C6H5NH3]+Cl–, known as anilinium chloride.
A measure of the number of entities present in a substance. , or any speciÜed group of such entities. The amount of substance of an element, for example, is proportional to the number of atoms present. For all entities, the constant of proportionality is the *Avogadro constant. The SI unit of amount of substance is the *mole. AMP See atp; cyclic amp. ampere Symbol A. The SI unit of electric 38 current. The constant current that, maintained in two straight parallel inÜnite conductors of negligible cross section placed one metre apart in a vacuum, would produce a force between the conductors of 2 × 10–7 N m–1.
A Dictionary of Science, 5th Edition (Oxford Paperback Reference) by John Daintith