's Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15 PDF

ISBN-10: 0080576761

ISBN-13: 9780080576763

ISBN-10: 0120145154

ISBN-13: 9780120145157

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37). In Eq. (39), s - SOmust always have the same sign as s,. When s - SO has the opposite sign from s, there is no contribution at s and dl(s) = 0. Rather than introduce the trapezoidal shape of the undeflected beam into Eq. (39), it is usually sufficient to consider the equivalent rectangular beam shape of width 2a (Fig. 10). Integration of Eq. (39) yields for - a 5 s 5 a, and I(s) = 0 for s 5 -a. These equations apply when s, is positive. The intensity distribution is (ideally) symmetrical about s = 0.

8 The width and intensity of the spectral lines-and consequently the transition probability as a function of frequency-are of considerable importance in the design, ,interpretation, and ultimate accuracy of an atomic beam experiment. The line width is given approximately by the Heisenberg relation : A V T - 1, where Av is the line width and r is the time t,he atom spends in the radiation field. In contrast with microwave absorption spectroscopy, collision and Doppler broadening can be made negligibly small in beam experiments.

For a surface ionization detector, the efficiency of ionization can be nearly 100%. 3 X 1O-l1 amp. Approximately one-eighth of this total detected intensity is contributed by the two states (F = 4, mp = 0) and (F = 3, mp = 0). When the deflection magnets are switched on, the intensity seen by the detector is +m/2 I' = If w /-w,2 I(s)ds. = a, the integration yields I' = -a2 loo[3 exp ( -22su/3a - exp (-2sJa)l. s, IR ATOMIC BEAM FREQUENCY STANDARDS 27 is the relative population of atoms in the ith state.

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Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15


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