By Barrie Gunter
Crisis is growing to be concerning the effectiveness of tv ads legislation within the gentle of technological advancements within the media. the present swift development of television systems in terrestrial, sattelite, and cable codecs will quickly stream into electronic transmission. those all supply possibilities for higher commercialization via ads on media that experience now not formerly been exploited. In democratic societies, there's a rigidity among freedom of speech rights and the damage that may be performed to youngsters via advertisement messages. This booklet explores all of those matters and appears to the longer term in contemplating how powerful codes of perform and rules will develop.
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Additional resources for Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation
Macklin's results are often cited as evidence that five-year-olds have some understanding of the persuasive intent of advertisements. However the five-year-olds in Macklin's study only performed better than chance if all 10 pictures were equally likely to be chosen (in which case chance was 10%). But Macklin's study is open to the same criticism that was leveled at Donohue et al. (1980). Only three of the 10 pictures she used included the product, and if the five-year-olds simply chose a picture because it included the product they had just seen in the television advertisement, they had a 33% chance of picking the shopping picture by chance.
The figure of 69% found by Bijmolt et al. was therefore not significantly better than chance and no conclusions can be drawn from their results. 's study is surprising given the age of the children in their study. They included five- to eight-year-olds, and given the other evidence for older children's understanding of advertisements (see chap. 4), it might have been expected that a group that included seven- and eight-year-olds would have done well on a nonverbal task. We have emphasized the details of the nonverbal studies in which children had to choose pictures to indicate understanding because many authors have claimed that such nonverbal tasks have demonstrated that young children have an appreciation of the persuasive intent of advertisements.
The concept of host selling, that is, using popular television characters in commercials that also feature in the adjacent program can blur the boundaries between an advertisement and the surrounding program (Kunkel, 1988a). This is especially pertinent when animated advertisements are shown within and between cartoon programs. Also, some perceptual similarities between children's programs and advertisements may confuse children in their attempts to recognize the differences between them (Kunkel & Roberts, 1991).
Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation by Barrie Gunter