By N. Purdie, Harry G. Brittain
Beneficial properties distinct points of round dichroism and examines the way it may be of tips to employees within the box. The textual content discusses the actual phenomena linked to dissymmetric compounds which provide upward thrust to the round dichroism impression, and experiences the instrumentation on hand.
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This section will briefly highlight the optical elements currently utilized for these manipulations with particular emphasis on the CD measurement. Linear polarizers, which create linearly polarized light from unpolarized radiation, can be based on either absorption (linear dichroism), reflection, scattering or linear birefringence (double refraction). Of these four phenomena, only linear dichroism and linear birefringence have obtained wide use in CD measurements. Polarizers based on these effects can provide pure polarized light over wide spectral regions.
The retardation device must therefore be prepared for a specific wavelength since the linear birefringent properties of anisotropic materials are wavelength dependent. Thus one limitation of these devices is their small spectral operating range and multiple devices are necessary to span a reasonable wavelength region. A quarter-wave retardation can also be imparted by reflection at the appropriate angle, a property utilized in the Fresnel rhomb (Fig. 2). When light is incident upon an interface defined by two isotropic media of differing refractive indices, a portion of the light will be transmitted into the second medium across the interface, and some will be reflected.
The angle through which the second prism must be rotated in order to achieve equivalent intensity in the two beams is proportional to the amount of absorption. In similar manner, the rhombs can be rotated to create the oppositely circularly polarized component and its absorption coefficient determined. As is evident by comparison of Cotton's apparatus (Fig. 2) to the generic system in Fig. 1, with the exception of the method for observing intensity differences, and the mechanical-optical versus electro-optical method for producing both forms of the circularly polarized light, Cotton's experimental arrangement is virtually identical to the arrangement used in modern CD instruments.
Analytical Applications of Circular Dichroism by N. Purdie, Harry G. Brittain