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By Eduardo H. Rapoport

ISBN-10: 0080289142

ISBN-13: 9780080289144

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The work of Phipps (1975) on a method of comparing species points distributions by transforming latitude-longitude coordinates into kilometric distances may be of great help for this purpose. Mean propinquity method Propinquity (from the Latin propinquus, close, near) is based on the concept of distance to the nearest neighbour — already having a mathematical foundation and being widely used in ecology — and also on the concept of "tree" in the theory of graphs. The procedure is the following: 1.

Reid (1974) states that fungi are very sporadic in occurrence and in their fructification and it is difficult to be sure whether a rare species has become extinct or whether its apparent absence is merely due to lack of the climatic factors necessary to induce fruiting. The unpredictability of fruiting of rare species from season to season means that it is by merest chance that the right person is at the right place at the right time of year and sometimes even at the right time of day. For these reasons it is perfectly possible for a species to be considered extinct when it is in fact widespread but rare.

It is a decreasing geometric progression due to the fact that r < 1. The sum (S) of the first n terms is r - 1 This progression well describes the way in which the species divide their niches (Motomura, 1932, quoted by Whittaker, 1965, and 1970, p. 25). In spite of this, if we take ranges instead of ecological niches, the observed values for mammals are displaced to the top, indicating higher than calculated values; this would mean that the biggest ranged subspecies in nature are less thoroughly divided than predicted by the model, then the bigger landowners have a better chance to retain a bigger portion of land when the number of landowners increases.

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Areography. Geographical Strategies of Species by Eduardo H. Rapoport

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