By P. Ehrenfreund (Editor), W.M. Irvine (Editor), T. Owen (Editor), Luann Becker (Editor), Jen Blank (E
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Extra resources for Astrobiology: Future Perspectives (Astrophysics and Space Science Library)
Are complex organics made through the processing, through photon or particle irradiation, of molecular ices in diVuse interstellar clouds? If so, what are the processes which remove organics to the gas phase? If the interstellar formation of these species is negligible, can they be made in 22 Chapter 2 carbon-rich objects, for example AGB stars, and transported to the general interstellar medium? 2. Although selection eVects ensure that we are not seeing the total inventory of organics, the total amount of gas-phase carbon, again excluding CO, is only 1% of the total available.
Eventually, the accretion shock is encountered and shock processes come to dominate the chemistry of the material Wrst entering the nebula (Lunine 1989; Neufeld & Hollenbach 1994). SpeciWc regions of the disk favour survival of various interstellar materials (refractory metals, refractory and volatile organics, and ice) (see also Simonelli et al. 1997; Chick & Cassen 1997). The smallest shock speeds and preshock densities favour the survival of the most volatile material and occur in the outermost regions.
BDiVuse refers to galactic clouds seen in absorption against extragalactic continuum sources (Lucas & Liszt 1997; Liszt & Lucas 2001). cTranslucent cloud data from Turner (2000). d TMC–1 and L134N are cold dark clouds (Ohishi & Kaifu 1998; Dickens et al. 2000). 3hc is a hot molecular core (Millar et al. 1997; Hatchell et al. 1998b). a(-b) ¼ a Â 10Àb . Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium 23 regions of massive star formation. They are important astrophysically because they represent an early stage in star formation; they may contain embedded massive protostars, or be the fossils of failed star formation.
Astrobiology: Future Perspectives (Astrophysics and Space Science Library) by P. Ehrenfreund (Editor), W.M. Irvine (Editor), T. Owen (Editor), Luann Becker (Editor), Jen Blank (E