By Alfred Pingoud
Limit enzymes are hugely particular nucleases which happen ubiquitously between prokaryotic organisms, the place they serve to guard bacterial cells opposed to overseas DNA. many differing types of limit enzymes are recognized, between them multi-subunit enzymes which depend upon ATP or GTP hydrolysis for aim web site situation. the easiest identified representatives, the orthodox style II limit endonucleases, are homodimers which realize palindromic sequences, four to eight base pairs in size, and cleave the DNA inside or instantly adjoining to the popularity web site. as well as their very important organic function (up to ten % of the genomes of prokaryotic organisms code for restriction/modification systems!), they're one of the most crucial enzymes used for the research and recombination of DNA. moreover, they're version structures for the learn of protein-nucleic acids interactions and, as a result of their ubiquitous occurence, additionally for the certainty of the mechanisms of evolution.
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Extra info for Restriction Endonucleases
For example, many restriction-modification gene complexes reside on plasmids (Table 2, B). Many of the cases of strain-specific restriction-modification systems in E. coli can be explained by their presence on plasmids [REBASE]. Moreover, some restriction-modification gene homologues have been found in a prophage in the chromosome [Table 1 (2)]. Others are on transposons, conjugative transposons (or integrative conjugative elements), genomic islands, and integrons [Table 1 (2)]. Restriction-modification gene homologues are also sometimes found to be linked with mobilityrelated genes, although the significance of this linkage is less clear than with the above cases (Xu et al.
How the selfish gene point of view can aid the classification of these complexes is described in Section 7. The next section (Sect. 8) discusses how these systems can be utilized in practical terms. The penultimate section (Sect. 9) proposes that the attack on the host by restriction-modification systems upon their disturbance reflects a general feature of genes that are assembled in a chromosome. The last section (Sect. 10) draws some conclusions. This work owes much to other publications and databases.
This selfish gene hypothesis (Naito et al. 1995; Kusano et al. 1995; Kobayashi 1996, 1998, 2001) is now supported by many lines of evidence from genome analysis and experimentation. A third type of hypothesis that explains why restriction-modification systems are present assumes that they aid the generation of diversity (Arber 1993; Price and Bickle 1986; variation hypothesis). Supporting this notion is that these systems are indeed associated with genome variation in a number of different ways (Sect.
Restriction Endonucleases by Alfred Pingoud